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Cements - Resin and Metal Bonding
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Introduction to Metal Bonding: Metal adhesive luting cements are cements whose active chemical component is in the composite. Almost any resin can be used to bond to metal if a metal bonding agent is first applied. The major reason for metal resin luting cements is their ease of use. Almost all metal adhesives bond best to a sandblasted surface. Tin plating usually increases the bond strength further. Metal bonded luting agents must be chemically cured since light will not go through metal.

Tin Plating: Tin plating after sandblasting causes the formation of tiny crystals that enhance the micro-mechanical bond achieved with sandblasting and provide micro-mechanical retention for the luting cement.
       Most tin plating devices are pen-shaped and contain batteries. They come with an electrodeposition solution. The applicator consists of a cathode spring clip that attaches to the casting, and an anode that attaches to the unit. The unit has a 4.5-volt power source provided by three N-size batteries.
       To use the device, fasten the cathode lead wire from the electroplater to the casting to be plated. Attach a small (about 1-mm square) cotton pellet soaked with the electrodeposition solution to the instrument tip and gently brush the soaked cotton tip on the area to be plated. This deposits a light gray tin layer where the anode point contacts the casting. (Danville Engineering: 800-827-7940).


Impact Coatings for Adhering to Metal: CoJet (ESPE) uses a special sandblasting material that allows any resin to be bonded to any metal or ceramic surface. It works by using special beads with a sandblaster to place a bondable glass coating on the surface. A silane is then added and the resin bonds to it. Cojet is easy to use but does change the color of a metal surface. When used on non-etchable ceramics the color is not affected. Cojet can be used with Compolute, which is a dual-cured composite luting agent in capsule (same as their glass-ionomer capsules) for tituration. Besides Cojet, there are a number of metal primers from G-C and other manufacturers that have favorable bond strengths.

Composite Resins with Metal Adhesion: These will adhere to metal without metal conditioning (such as tin plating and CoJet). Panavia EX (Kuraray) was the first metal bonding adhesive to gain widespread use. It is a very technique-sensitive powder/liquid material and has a large air inhibition layer than can be difficult to cover sufficiently to allow curing. However, the product has enjoyed long-term clinicial success. Panavia 21 (J. Morita USA/Kuraray) is an improved version that is easier to use and has a longer working time. Panavia also now comes in a dual-cured form. A major disadvantage of Panavia is its limited shades.
       CHEMICAL-CURE adhesives: Panavia EX and Panavia 21 (Kuraray), Imperva Dual Bond (Shofu), and C& B Metabond (Parkell) are good for bonded metal restorations. A major disadvantage is limited shades.
       DUAL-CURE resin adhesives: RelyX ARC Resin Cement (3M). A number of metal primers are also available that can be used to bond conventional composite resin cements to untreated metals.

Conventional Resin Cements: Most conventional resin luting cements can adhere to metal with metal conditioning (tin plating or CoJet) or a metal adhesive. Conventional resin luting cements are available in light-cure, chemical-cure, or dual-cure forms. Dual-cured resin cements, the most popular, usually come in two pastes; the "base paste" is light-cured for bonding veneers, and the "catalyst paste" (usually in two viscosities) is used for inlays, onlays and full-coverage units.
       Some of these products are (DUAL CURE): Compolute (ESPE), Enforce (Caulk), and Variolink II (Vivadent); they come with three base shades and two viscosities of catalyst and try-in pastes. Variolink Ultra (Vivadent) is an expanded kit. Lute-It and Cement-It (54% vol./1Ám filler Jeneric-Pentron) and Nexus (Kerr) come with three base shades and two viscosities of catalyst and try-in pastes. Opal Luting Composite (3M) comes in a number of shades. LIGHT CURE: Colorlogic (Ceramco), Heliolink (Vivadent), Insure (Cosmodent), and PVS Porcelain Bonding Kit (Jelenko).

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