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> Glass Ionomers (Restoratives and Cements)
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Texts Authored by Harry Albers, DDS
Glass Ionomers (Restoratives and Cements)
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GIC Dentin Conditioners:
Used to clean the dentin surface prior to placing GIC restorations; helps provide a more consistent bond. Not needed when placing a base.
(formerly called Cavity Conditioner) (GC), 20% polyacrylic acid;
(3MESPE), 25% polymaleic acid. Most glass ionomer kits include a conditioner. Do not confuse these with dentin-resin bonding conditioners, such as 35% phosphoric acid. Phosphoric acid however, can be used as a 5 second etch to condition prior to placing a glass ionomer.
Glass Ionomer Cements (Type I):
(Shofu) are conventional glass ionomers that come as a powder/liquid and in capsules. These Type I glass ionomers, unlike resin-containing ionomers, have virtually no expansion. Polycarboxylate cement is still preferred for very sensitive teeth. A resin cement is best for enamel-containing preparations or on non-vital teeth.
Glass Ionomer Restoratives (Type II):
, powder/liquid or capsules (GC),
Shofu Type II
are recommended for Class Vs, non-stress-bearing crown buildups and as a temporary material.
Glass Ionomer Lining and Base Cements:
capsules (3MESPE) for smaller buildups;
Shofu Base Cement
(Shofu) for a thick base in larger buildups.
Heavy Filled Glass Ionomers:
Fuji IX GP
capsules (regular or fast set) or powder/liquid (GC),
capsules (3MESPE); for provisional filling and larger non-stress-bearing buildups.
Shofu Hi Dense
Miracle Mix (GC)
(3MESPE) are not tooth-colored materials and should be avoided under ceramic restorations.
Light-Cured Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Liners:
(3M) was the first light-cured glass ionomer. It contains zinc, which makes it bacteriostatic. This product reduced sensitivity and became popular for use under composites.
Fuji Lining Cement LC
(G-C) is a similar material that was introduced later. The two are very similiar.
Light-Cured Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Restoratives (RMGI)):
Fuji Cap II LC
(3MESPE) come as a powder/liquid and in capsules. They have excellent esthetics and retention compared to earlier chemically set GICs, although they can expand after placement and become darker over time.
(3M) only comes as a powder/liquid and we have found it to be less esthetic.
Self-Cure Modified Glass Ionomer Cements:
These RMGIs include
(3M), formerly Vitremer Luting. These are primarily indicated for luting although some are being marketed as multipurpose materials. Advantage is more tensile strength. Disadvantages are lower stiffness and expansion after placement from water sorption (2-4% linear, more by volume). They should NOT be used under all-ceramic full-coverage restorations since their expansion places tension on the ceramic, which can result in fractures. They are not stiff enough to be used for luting porcelain veneers since they cannot support the porcelain. These materials are relatively new and have become popular because they are easy to clean up. At this time they are only recommended for use with metal and PBM crowns and bridges.
Polyacid Modified Composite Resins (PMCR) or Compomers:
(Bisco) are water-absorbing composites that contain some glass ionomer components. They have become popular because they have good handling properties. Do not use them in any stress-bearing areas. The fluoride in them is not available to the underlying tooth due to the use of a resin bonding agent. Most release fluoride by diffusion, which then might be absorbed by the enamel that surrounds the margins. They soften over time, discolor, are relatively new, and are not recommended for use at this time.
(Vivadent) are compomer cements that are sold for routine cementation of gold and PBM crowns. Protec Cem is unique in that it is clear.
(Caulk), an earlier material, had problems with expansion and could fracture all-ceramic units. This is still a major concern with this class of materials when cementing all-ceramic restorations.
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